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Duodenal Switch Compared to Other Weight Loss Surgeries

Clinical data discussing results of Duodenal Switch compared to other weight loss surgeries including Adjustable Gastric Band, Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy or Gastric Bypass.

Perioperative complications in a consecutive series of 1000 duodenal switches.
Marceau et al. Nov 2011
PubMed Abstract

BACKGROUND: In the past 10 years, most bariatric surgeries have seen an important reduction in the early complication rate, partly associated with the development of the laparoscopic approach. Our objective was to assess the current early complication rate associated with biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) since the introduction of a laparoscopic approach in our institution, a university-affiliated tertiary care center.

METHODS: A consecutive series of 1000 patients who had undergone BPD-DS from November 2006 to January 2010 was surveyed. The primary endpoint was the mortality rate. The secondary endpoints were the major 30-day complication rate and hospital stay >10 days. The data are reported as a mean ± SD, comparing the laparoscopic (n = 228) and open (n = 772) groups.

RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 43 ± 10 years (40 ± 10 years in the laparoscopy group versus 44 ± 10 years in the open group, P < .01). The preoperative body mass index was 51 ± 8 kg/m(2) (47 ± 7 laparoscopy versus 52 ± 8 kg/m(2) open, P < .01). The conversion rate in the laparoscopy group was 2.6%. There was 1 postoperative death (.1%) from a pulmonary embolism in the laparoscopy group. The mean hospital stay was shorter after laparoscopic surgery (6 ± 6 d versus 7 ± 9 d, P = .01), and a hospital stay >10 days was more frequent in the open group (4.4% versus 7%, P = .04). Major complications occurred in 7% of the patients, with no significant differences between the 2 groups (7% versus 7.4%, P = .1). No differences were found in the overall leak or intra-abdominal abscess rate (3.5% versus 4%, P = .1); however, gastric leaks were more frequent after open surgery (0% versus 2%, P = .02). During a mean 2-year follow-up, 1 additional death occurred from myocardial infarction, 2 years after open BPD-DS.

CONCLUSION: The early and late mortality rate of BPD-DS is low and comparable to that of other bariatric surgeries.

Effect of different bariatric operations on food tolerance and quality of eating.
Schweiger et al. Oct 2010
PubMed Abstract

ABSTRACT: Many bariatric operations are associated with reduced food tolerance and frequent vomiting, which may cause nutritional deficiencies and influence quality of life. However, the impact of different bariatric procedures on quality of eating and food tolerance has not yet been studied enough. Two hundred and eighteen participants filled a quality of eating questionnaire, at three different time periods after bariatric operation: short-term (3-6 months, n=63), medium-term (6-12 months, n=69) and long-term follow-up (over 12 months, n=86). The participants underwent the following procedures: 99 patients have had Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), 49 laparoscopic gastric banding (LAGB), 56 sleeve gastrectomy (SG), and 14 biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) . At short-term period score achieved for all section of the questionnaire was similar for all operations. The total score of the questionnaire at the medium-term group was 20.27 +/- 3.57, 14.47 +/- 5.92, 22.27 +/- 4.66, and 20.91 +/- 3.26 (p<0.001) and the total score for the long-term group of was 21.56 +/- 5.16, 15.5 +/- 3.75, 20.45 +/- 4.9, and 24.2 +/- 2.16 (p<0.001) for RYGB, LAGB, SG, and BPD-DS, respectively. In a linear regression model we found that LAGB patients had a significantly lower total score compared to all other procedures (p<0.001). Every 1% of %EWL was associated with a total score decrease in 0.045 points (p=0.009). Impaired quality of eating and food intolerance is common following many types of bariatric procedures. However, the difficulties diminish as time passes after operation and can be affected by the type of procedure. Patients undergoing LAGB have significantly greater limitations and difficulties to ingest variety of foods.

Comparison of weight loss and body composition changes with four surgical procedures.
Gagner et al. April 2009
PubMed Abstract

BACKGROUND: A paucity of information is available on the comparative body composition changes after bariatric procedures. The present study reports on the body mass index (BMI) and body composition changes after 4 procedures by a single group.

METHODS: At the initial consultation, the weight and body composition of the patients undergoing 4 different bariatric procedures were measured by bioimpedance (Tanita 310). Follow-up examinations were performed at 1 year and at subsequent visits after surgery. Analysis of variance was used to compare the postprocedure BMI and body composition. Analysis of covariance was used to adjust for baseline differences.

RESULTS: A total of 101 gastric bypass (GB) patients were evaluated at 19.1 +/- 10.6 months, 49 biliopancreatic diversion with the duodenal switch (BPD/DS) patients at 27.5 +/- 16.3 months, 41 adjustable gastric band (AGB) patients at 21.4 +/- 9.2 months, and 30 sleeve gastrectomy (SG) patients at 16.7 +/- 5.6 months (P <.0001). No differences were found in patient age or gender among the 4 groups. The mean preoperative BMI was significantly different among the 4 groups (P <.0001): 61.4 kg/m(2), 53.2, 46.7, and 44.3 kg/m(2) for the SG, BPD/DS, GB, and AGB group, respectively. The postoperative BMI adjusted for baseline differences was 27.8 (difference 23.6 +/- 8.3), 32.5 (difference 15.6 +/- 5.0), 37.2 (difference 18.2 +/- 8.2), and 39.5 kg/m(2) (difference 7.5 +/- 4.3) for the BPD/DS, GB, SG, and AGB groups, respectively (P <.0001). The percentage of excess weight loss was 84%, 70%, 49%, and 38% for the BPD/DS, GB, SG, and AGB groups, respectively (P <.0001). The postoperative percentage of body fat adjusted for baseline differences was 25.7% (23.9% +/- 7.0%) 32.7% (16.1% +/- 10.5%) 37.7% (16.7% +/- 5.6%), and 42% (6.0% +/- 6.8%) for the BPD/DS, GB, SG, and AGB groups, respectively (P <.0001). The lean body mass changes were reciprocal.

CONCLUSION: Although the BPD/DS procedure reduced the BMI the most effectively and promoted fat loss, all the procedures produced weight loss. The AGB procedure resulted in less body fat loss within 21.5 months than SG within 16.7 months. Longer term observation is indicated.

Obesity surgery results depending on technique performed: long-term outcome.
Gracia et al. April 2009
PubMed Abstract

BACKGROUND: Many techniques have excellent results at 2 years of follow-up but some matters regarding their long-term efficacy have arisen. This is why bariatric surgery results must be analyzed in long-term follow-up. The aim of this study was to extend the analysis over 5 years, evaluating weight loss, morbidity, and mortality of the surgical procedures performed.

METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of the different procedures for morbid obesity practiced in our Department of Surgery for morbid obesity. The results have been analyzed in terms of weight loss, morbidity improvement, and postoperative morbidity (Bariatric Analysis And Reporting Outcome System).

RESULTS: One hundred twenty-five patients were operated on open vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG), 150 patients of open biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) of Scopinaro, 100 patients of open modified BPD (common limb 75 cm; alimentary limb 225 cm), and 115 patients of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP). Mean follow-up was: VBG 12 years, BPD 7 years, and LRYGBP 4 years. An excellent initial weight loss was observed at the end of the second year of follow-up in all techniques, but from this time an important regain of weight was observed in VBG group and a discrete weight regain in LRYGBP group. Only BPD groups kept excellent weight results so far in time. Mortality was: VBG 1.6%, BPD 1.2%, and LRYGBP 0%. Early postoperative complications were: VBG 25%, BPD 20.4%, and LRYGBP 20%. Late postoperative morbidity was: protein malnutrition 11% in Scopinaro BPD, 3% in Modified BPD group, and no cases reported either in VBG group or LRYGBP group; iron deficiency 20% VBG, 62% Scopinaro BPD, 40% modified BPD, and 30.5% LRYGBP. A 14.5% of VBG group required revision surgery to gastric bypass or to BPD due to 100% weight regain or vomiting. A 3.2% of Scopinaro BPD with severe protein malnutrition required revision surgery to lengthen common limb to 100 cm. A 0.8% of LRYGBP required revision surgery to distal LRYGBP (common limb 75 cm) due to 100% weight regain.

CONCLUSIONS: The most complex bariatric procedures increase the effectiveness but unfortunately they also increase morbidity and mortality. LRYGBP is safe and effective for the treatment of morbid obesity. Modified BPD (75-225 cm) can be considered for the treatment of superobesity (body mass index > 50 kg/m(2)), and restrictive procedures such as VBG should only be performed in well-selected patients due to high rates of failure in long-term follow-up.

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