Duodenal Switch Compared to Gastric Bypass

Articles that discuss Duodenal Switch Compared to Gastric Bypass surgery.

Randomized clinical trial of laparoscopic gastric bypass versus laparoscopic duodenal switch for superobesity. 
Søvik et al. Feb 2010
PubMed Abstract 

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and laparoscopic biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (LDS) are surgical options for superobesity. A randomized trial was conducted to evaluate perioperative (30-day) safety and 1-year results.

METHODS: Sixty patients with a body mass index (BMI) of 50-60 kg/m(2) were randomized to LRYGB or LDS. BMI, percentage of excess BMI lost, complications and readmissions were compared between groups.

RESULTS: Patient characteristics were similar in the two groups. Mean operating time was 91 min for LRYGB and 206 min for LDS (P < 0.001). One LDS was converted to open surgery. Early complications occurred in four patients undergoing LRYGB and seven having LDS (P = 0.327), with no deaths. Median stay was 2 days after LRYGB and 4 days after LDS (P < 0.001). Four and nine patients respectively had late complications (P = 0.121). Mean BMI at 1 year decreased from 54.8 to 38.5 kg/m(2) after LRYGB and from 55.2 to 32.5 kg/m(2) after LDS; percentage of excess BMI lost was greater after LDS (74.8 versus 54.4 per cent; P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: LRYGB and LDS can be performed with comparable perioperative safety in superobese patients. LDS provides greater weight loss in the first year.

Registration number: NCT00327912 (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov). Copyright (c) 2009 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Duodenal switch provides superior resolution of metabolic comorbidities independent of weight loss in the super-obese (BMI > or = 50 kg/m2) compared with gastric bypass. 
Prachand et al. Feb 2010
PubMed Abstract 

OBJECTIVE: Increased body mass index is associated with greater incidence and severity of obesity-related comorbidities and inadequate postbariatric surgery weight loss. Accordingly, comorbidity resolution is an important measure of surgical outcome in super-obese individuals. We previously reported superior weight loss in super-obese patients following duodenal switch (DS) compared to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in a large single institution series. We now report follow-up comparison of comorbidity resolution and correlation with weight loss.

METHODS: Data from patients undergoing DS and RYGB between August 2002 and October 2005 were prospectively collected and used to identify super-obese patients with diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Ali-Wolfe scoring was used to describe comorbidity severity. Chi-square analysis was used to compare resolution and two-sample t tests used to compare weight loss between patients whose comorbidities resolved and persisted.

RESULTS: Three hundred fifty super-obese patients [DS (n=198), RYGB (n=152)] were identified. Incidence and severity of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and GERD was comparable in both groups while diabetes was less common but more severe in the DS group (24.2% vs. 35.5%, Ali-Wolfe 3.27 vs. 2.94, p<0.05). Diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia resolution was greater at 36 months for DS (diabetes, 100% vs. 60%; hypertension, 68.0% vs. 38.6%; dyslipidemia, 72% vs. 26.3%), while GERD resolution was greater for RYGB (76.9% vs. 48.57%; p<0.05). There were no differences in weight loss between comorbidity “resolvers” and “persisters”.

CONCLUSIONS: In comparison to RYGB, DS provides superior resolution of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in the super-obese independent of weight loss.

Vitamin status after bariatric surgery: a randomized study of gastric bypass and duodenal switch. 
Aasheim et al. July 2009
PubMed Abstract 

BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is widely performed to induce weight loss.

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine changes in vitamin status after 2 bariatric surgical techniques.

DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 Scandinavian hospitals. The subjects were 60 superobese patients [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 50-60]. The surgical interventions were either laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or laparoscopic biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. All patients received multivitamins, iron, calcium, and vitamin D supplements. Gastric bypass patients also received a vitamin B-12 substitute. The patients were examined before surgery and 6 wk, 6 mo, and 1 y after surgery.

RESULTS: Of 60 surgically treated patients, 59 completed the follow-up. After surgery, duodenal switch patients had lower mean vitamin A and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and a steeper decline in thiamine concentrations than did the gastric bypass patients. Other vitamins (riboflavin, vitamin B-6, vitamin C, and vitamin E adjusted for serum lipids) did not change differently in the surgical groups, and concentrations were either stable or increased. Furthermore, duodenal switch patients had lower hemoglobin and total cholesterol concentrations and a lower BMI (mean reduction: 41% compared with 30%) than did gastric bypass patients 1 y after surgery. Additional dietary supplement use was more frequent among duodenal switch patients (55%) than among gastric bypass patients (26%).

CONCLUSIONS: Compared with gastric bypass, duodenal switch may be associated with a greater risk of vitamin A and D deficiencies in the first year after surgery and of thiamine deficiency in the initial months after surgery. Patients who undergo these 2 surgical interventions may require different monitoring and supplementation regimens in the first year after surgery. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00327912.

Bowel Habits after Gastric Bypass Versus the Duodenal Switch Operation. 
Wasserberg et al. Aug 2008
PubMed Abstract 

BACKGROUND: One of the perceived disadvantages of the biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch operation is diarrhea. The aim of this study was to compare the bowel habits of patients after duodenal switch operation or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

METHODS: A prospective comparative case series design was used. Forty-six patients who underwent duodenal switch (n = 28) or gastric bypass (n = 18) were asked to complete a daily diary for 14 days after losing least 50% of their excess body weight. Data were collected on number of bowel episodes, incontinence, urgency, stool consistency, and awakening from sleep to defecate. Background variables were recorded from the medical files.

RESULTS: The duodenal switch group was heavier (body mass index 53.5 vs 47.0 kg/m(2), p = 0.03) and older (47.5 vs 41.0 years, p = NS) than the gastric bypass group. Median time to 50% excess body weight loss was 22 months in the duodenal switch group compared to 10.0 months in the gastric bypass group (p = 0.001). Patients after duodenal switch surgery reported a median of 23.5 bowel episodes over the 14-day study period compared to 16.5 in the gastric bypass group (p = NS). There was no between-group differences in any of the other bowel parameters studied.

CONCLUSIONS: Although duodenal switch is associated with more bowel episodes than gastric bypass, the difference is not statistically significant. Bowel habits are similar in patients who achieve 50% estimated body weight loss with duodenal switch surgery or gastric bypass.

Duodenal Switch Provides Superior Weight Loss in the Super-Obese (BMI >50kg/m2) Compared With Gastric Bypass 
Prachand et al. Oct 2006
PubMed Abstract 

OBJECTIVES: Although weight loss following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is acceptable in patients with preoperative body mass index (BMI) between 35 and 50 kg/m, results from several series demonstrate that failure rates approach 40% when BMI is > or =50 kg/m. Here we report the first large single institution series directly comparing weight-loss outcomes in super-obese patients following biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (DS) and Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB).

METHODS: All super-obese patients (BMI > or =50 kg/m) undergoing standardized laparoscopic and open DS and RYGB between August 2002 and October 2005 were identified from a prospective database. Two-sample t tests were used to compare weight loss, decrease in BMI, and percentage of excess body weight loss (% EBWL) after surgery. chi analysis was used to determine the rate of successful weight loss, defined as achieving at least 50% loss of excess body weight.

RESULTS: A total of 350 super-obese patients underwent DS (n = 198) or RYGB (n = 152) with equal 30-day mortality (DS,1 of 198; RYGB, 0 of 152; P = not significant). The % EBWL at follow-up was greater for DS than RY (12 months, 64.1% vs. 55.9%; 18 months, 71. 9% vs. 62.8%; 24 months, 71.6% vs. 60.1%; 36 months, 68.9% vs. 54.9%; P < 0.05). Total weight loss and decrease in BMI were also statistically greater for the DS (data not shown). Importantly, the likelihood of successful weight loss (EBWL >50%) was significantly greater in patients following DS (12 months, 83.9% vs. 70.4%; 18 months, 90.3% vs. 75.9%; 36 months, 84.2% vs. 59.3%; P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Direct comparison of DS to RYGB demonstrates superior weight loss outcomes for DS.

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass versus a variant of biliopancreatic diversion in a non-superobese population: prospective comparison of the efficacy and the incidence of metabolic deficiencies. 
Skroubis et al. April 2006
PubMed Abstract 

BACKGROUND: In the non-superobese population, an agreement has not been made as to the optimal bariatric operation. The present study reports the results of a prospective comparison of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) and a variant of biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) in a non-superobese population.

METHODS: From a cohort of 130 patients with BMI 35 to 50 kg/m(2), 65 patients were randomly selected to undergo RYGBP and 65 to undergo BPD. All patients underwent complete follow-up evaluation at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively and every year thereafter.

RESULTS: Patients in both groups have completed their second postoperative year. Mean % excess weight loss (%EWL) was significantly better after BPD at all time periods (12 months, P=0.0001 and 24 months, P=0.0003), and the %EWL was >50% in all BPD patients compared to 88.7% in the RYGBP patients at 2-year follow-up. No statistically significant differences were observed between the 2 groups in early and late non-metabolic complications. Hypoalbuminemia occurred in only 1 patient (1.5%) after RYGBP and in 6 patients after BPD (9.2%). Only 1 patient from each group was hospitalized and received total parenteral nutrition. Glucose intolerance, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and sleep apnea completely resolved in all patients in both groups, although mean total cholesterol level was significantly lower in BPD patients at the second year follow-up (t-test, P<0.0001). Diabetes completely resolved in all BPD patients and in 7 of the 10 diabetic RYGBP patients.

CONCLUSION: Both RYGBP and BPD were safe and effective procedures when offered to non-superobese patients. Weight loss after BPD was consistently better than that after RYGBP, as was the resolution of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Because the nutritional deficiencies that occurred following this type of BPD were not severe and were not significantly different between the 2 operations, both may be offered to non-superobese patients, keeping in mind the severity and type of preoperative co-morbidities as well as the desired weight loss.