Long Term Studies

To follow are the long term studies on the safety and efficacy of the Duodenal Switch procedure for the morbidly obese.

Perioperative complications in a consecutive series of 1000 duodenal switches. 
Marceau et al. Nov 2011
PubMed Abstract 

BACKGROUND: In the past 10 years, most bariatric surgeries have seen an important reduction in the early complication rate, partly associated with the development of the laparoscopic approach. Our objective was to assess the current early complication rate associated with biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) since the introduction of a laparoscopic approach in our institution, a university-affiliated tertiary care center.

METHODS: A consecutive series of 1000 patients who had undergone BPD-DS from November 2006 to January 2010 was surveyed. The primary endpoint was the mortality rate. The secondary endpoints were the major 30-day complication rate and hospital stay >10 days. The data are reported as a mean ± SD, comparing the laparoscopic (n = 228) and open (n = 772) groups.

RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 43 ± 10 years (40 ± 10 years in the laparoscopy group versus 44 ± 10 years in the open group, P < .01). The preoperative body mass index was 51 ± 8 kg/m(2) (47 ± 7 laparoscopy versus 52 ± 8 kg/m(2) open, P < .01). The conversion rate in the laparoscopy group was 2.6%. There was 1 postoperative death (.1%) from a pulmonary embolism in the laparoscopy group. The mean hospital stay was shorter after laparoscopic surgery (6 ± 6 d versus 7 ± 9 d, P = .01), and a hospital stay >10 days was more frequent in the open group (4.4% versus 7%, P = .04). Major complications occurred in 7% of the patients, with no significant differences between the 2 groups (7% versus 7.4%, P = .1). No differences were found in the overall leak or intra-abdominal abscess rate (3.5% versus 4%, P = .1); however, gastric leaks were more frequent after open surgery (0% versus 2%, P = .02). During a mean 2-year follow-up, 1 additional death occurred from myocardial infarction, 2 years after open BPD-DS.

CONCLUSION: The early and late mortality rate of BPD-DS is low and comparable to that of other bariatric surgeries.

Duodenal Switch: Long Term Results (15 Years)
Marceau et al. Nov 2007
PubMed Abstract 
Full Article 

BACKGROUND: This report summarizes our 15-year experience with duodenal switch (DS) as a primary procedure on 1,423 patients from 1992 to 2005.

METHODS: Within the last 2 years, follow-up of these patients, including clinical biochemistry evaluation by us or by their local physician is 97%.

RESULTS: Survival rate was 92% after DS. The risk of death (Excess Hazard Ratio (EHR)) was 1.2, almost that of the general population. After a mean of 7.3 years (range 2-15), 92% of patients with an initial BMI < or = 50 kg/m2 obtained a BMI < 35 and 83% of those with an initial BMI > 50 obtained a BMI < 40. Diabetes was cured (i.e. medication was discontinued) in 92% and medication decreased in the others. The use of the CPAP apparatus was discontinued in 90%, medication for asthma was decreased in 88%, and the prevalence of a cardiac risk index > 5 was decreased by 86%. Patients’ satisfaction in regard to weight loss was graded 3.6 on a basis of 5, and 95% of patients were satisfied with the overall results. Operative mortality was 1% which is comparable with gastric bypass surgery. The need for revision for malnutrition was rare (0.7%) and total reversal was exceptional (0.2%). Failure to lose > 25% of initial excess weight was 1.3%. Revision for failure to lose sufficient weight was needed in only 1.5%. Severe anemia, deficiency in vitamins or bone damage were exceptional, easily treatable, preventable and no permanent damage was documented.

CONCLUSION: In the long-term, DS was very efficient in terms of cure rate for morbid obesity and its comorbidities. In terms of risk/benefit, DS was very sucessful with an appropriate system of follow-up.

The Biliopancreatic Diversion with the Duodenal Switch: Results Beyond 10 Years. 
Hess et al. Mar 2005
PubMed Abstract 

The BPD/DS, if properly performed, has the best long-term weight loss of any bariatric operation. It is easy to reverse or revise, has the least marginal ulcers, cures the highest percentage of co-morbidities, has the least failures, and permits normal although smaller meals. It is our opinion that the BPD/DS should be considered as the gold standard bariatric operation.

The Duodenal Switch Operation for the Treatment of Morbid Obesity: A 10 Year Experience 
Anthone et al. Apr 2003
Full Article 

OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety and efficacy of the duodenal switch procedure as surgical treatment.

BACKGROUND: The longitudinal gastrectomy and duodenal switch procedure as performed for morbid obesity involves a 75% subtotal greater curvature gastrectomy and long limb suprapapillary Roux-en-Y duodenoenterostomy. This results in a restricted caloric intake and diversion of bile and pancreatic secretions to induce fat malabsorption. Broad acceptance of this procedure has been impeded because of concerns that the malabsorptive component may produce serious nutritional complications.

METHODS: Review of data collected prospectively from all patients who underwent duodenal switch as the primary surgical treatment for morbid obesity at a single institution during the ten year period beginning September 1992. Operative morbidity and mortality, weight loss, volume of food intake, and bowel function were recorded. Sequential measurements of serum albumin, hemoglobin, and calcium levels were obtained to assess metabolic function and nutrient absorption.

RESULTS: Duodenal switch was performed as the primary operation in 701 (81%) of a total 863 patients undergoing bariatric surgery during the period of study. The average BMI was 52.8 (range 34-95). Perioperative mortality was 1.4% and morbidity (including leaks, wound dehiscence, splenectomy, and postoperative hemorrhage) occurred in 21 patients (2.9%). Weight loss averaged 127 pounds at one year, 131 at three years and 118at five or more years (% EBWL of 69%, 73%, and 66%, respectively). The mean number of bowel movements was less than three per day. Patients reported and maintained a mean restriction of 63% of their preoperative intake (approximately 1600 calories), with no specific food intolerance, at 3 or more years follow-up. At three years, serum albumin remained at normal levels in 98% of patients, hemoglobin in 52%, and calcium in 71%. No patients reported dumping and marginal ulcers were not seen.

CONCLUSION: The longitudinal gastrectomy with duodenal switch is a safe and effective primary procedure for the treatment of morbid obesity. It has the advantage of allowing acceptable alimentation with a minimum of side effects while producing and maintaining significant weight loss. These results are achieved without developing significant dietary restrictions or clinical metabolic or nutritional complications.