Nutritional Deficiencies

Clinical data that discusses nutritional deficiencies in post-op Duodenal Switch patients.

Metabolic changes after morbid obesity surgery using the duodenal switch technique. Long term follow-up. 
Vázquez et al. Dec 2011
PubMed Abstract

INTRODUCTION: The duodenal switch (DS) technique is considered to be complex surgery with a series of metabolic complications due to its malabsorptive character. For these reasons, it has not been extensively used by bariatric surgeons. Despite this, we consider it to be a suitable technique for the grossly obese.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on 110 patients with morbid obesity operated on using the DS technique and who were followed up for a minimum period of four years after surgery. We evaluated the weight loss, the outcomes of the comorbidities, and the metabolic complications.

RESULTS: The loss of excess weight was greater than 50% in 75% of the patients after 12 months follow up. The comorbidities suffered by 68 patients (75.5%) were completely resolved. The most frequent metabolic complications were iron (Fe) deficiency and an increased parathyroid hormone (PTH).

CONCLUSION: DS is a safe and effective technique for the treatment of morbid obesity, with good weight loss results, a high percentage of remission of the comorbidities, a similar morbidity and mortality to other techniques, and with correctable nutritional changes, and thus acceptable.


Obesity surgery results depending on technique performed: long-term outcome. 
Gracia et al. April 2009
PubMed Abstract 

BACKGROUND: Many techniques have excellent results at 2 years of follow-up but some matters regarding their long-term efficacy have arisen. This is why bariatric surgery results must be analyzed in long-term follow-up. The aim of this study was to extend the analysis over 5 years, evaluating weight loss, morbidity, and mortality of the surgical procedures performed.

METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of the different procedures for morbid obesity practiced in our Department of Surgery for morbid obesity. The results have been analyzed in terms of weight loss, morbidity improvement, and postoperative morbidity (Bariatric Analysis And Reporting Outcome System).

RESULTS: One hundred twenty-five patients were operated on open vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG), 150 patients of open biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) of Scopinaro, 100 patients of open modified BPD (common limb 75 cm; alimentary limb 225 cm), and 115 patients of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP). Mean follow-up was: VBG 12 years, BPD 7 years, and LRYGBP 4 years. An excellent initial weight loss was observed at the end of the second year of follow-up in all techniques, but from this time an important regain of weight was observed in VBG group and a discrete weight regain in LRYGBP group. Only BPD groups kept excellent weight results so far in time. Mortality was: VBG 1.6%, BPD 1.2%, and LRYGBP 0%. Early postoperative complications were: VBG 25%, BPD 20.4%, and LRYGBP 20%. Late postoperative morbidity was: protein malnutrition 11% in Scopinaro BPD, 3% in Modified BPD group, and no cases reported either in VBG group or LRYGBP group; iron deficiency 20% VBG, 62% Scopinaro BPD, 40% modified BPD, and 30.5% LRYGBP. A 14.5% of VBG group required revision surgery to gastric bypass or to BPD due to 100% weight regain or vomiting. A 3.2% of Scopinaro BPD with severe protein malnutrition required revision surgery to lengthen common limb to 100 cm. A 0.8% of LRYGBP required revision surgery to distal LRYGBP (common limb 75 cm) due to 100% weight regain.

CONCLUSIONS: The most complex bariatric procedures increase the effectiveness but unfortunately they also increase morbidity and mortality. LRYGBP is safe and effective for the treatment of morbid obesity. Modified BPD (75-225 cm) can be considered for the treatment of superobesity (body mass index > 50 kg/m(2)), and restrictive procedures such as VBG should only be performed in well-selected patients due to high rates of failure in long-term follow-up.


Roux-en-Y gastric bypass versus a variant of biliopancreatic diversion in a non-superobese population: prospective comparison of the efficacy and the incidence of metabolic deficiencies. 
Skroubis et al. April 2006
PubMed Abstract 

BACKGROUND: In the non-superobese population, an agreement has not been made as to the optimal bariatric operation. The present study reports the results of a prospective comparison of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) and a variant of biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) in a non-superobese population.

METHODS: From a cohort of 130 patients with BMI 35 to 50 kg/m(2), 65 patients were randomly selected to undergo RYGBP and 65 to undergo BPD. All patients underwent complete follow-up evaluation at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively and every year thereafter.

RESULTS: Patients in both groups have completed their second postoperative year. Mean % excess weight loss (%EWL) was significantly better after BPD at all time periods (12 months, P=0.0001 and 24 months, P=0.0003), and the %EWL was >50% in all BPD patients compared to 88.7% in the RYGBP patients at 2-year follow-up. No statistically significant differences were observed between the 2 groups in early and late non-metabolic complications. Hypoalbuminemia occurred in only 1 patient (1.5%) after RYGBP and in 6 patients after BPD (9.2%). Only 1 patient from each group was hospitalized and received total parenteral nutrition. Glucose intolerance, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and sleep apnea completely resolved in all patients in both groups, although mean total cholesterol level was significantly lower in BPD patients at the second year follow-up (t-test, P<0.0001). Diabetes completely resolved in all BPD patients and in 7 of the 10 diabetic RYGBP patients.

CONCLUSION: Both RYGBP and BPD were safe and effective procedures when offered to non-superobese patients. Weight loss after BPD was consistently better than that after RYGBP, as was the resolution of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Because the nutritional deficiencies that occurred following this type of BPD were not severe and were not significantly different between the 2 operations, both may be offered to non-superobese patients, keeping in mind the severity and type of preoperative co-morbidities as well as the desired weight loss.

Nutritional Markers following Duodenal Switch for Morbid Obesity 
Rabkin et al. Jan 2004
PubMed Abstract 
Full Article 

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic duodenal switch with gastric reduction (LapDS) is a minimally invasive hybrid operation combining moderate intake restriction with moderate malabsorption for treatment of morbid obesity. In LapDS, both the quantity of food ingested and the efficiency of digestion are reduced.

METHODS: A cohort of 589 sequential LapDS patients had laboratory studies drawn annually. Serum markers for calcium, iron and protein metabolism and for hepatic function were analyzed using SAS statistical software.

RESULTS: There were 95 men and 494 women. Mean age was 44 years, mean BMI 50 kg/m(2) and mean preoperative weight 142 kg. Although mean hemoglobin decreased below reference and mean parathyroid hormone (PTH) increased above reference, similar to abnormal values reported after Roux-en-y gastric bypass, both hemoglobin and calcium in LapDS readily returned to within the reference range following supplementation with iron and calcium respectively. Mean iron, corrected calcium, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, total protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and bilirubin remained within the normal range.

CONCLUSION: LapDS is not associated with broad nutritional deficiencies. Annual laboratory studies, which are required following any type of bariatric operation, appear to be sufficient to identify unfavorable trends. In selected patients, additional iron and calcium supplementation are effective when indicated.

Comparison of nutritional deficiencies after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and after biliopancreatic diversion with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. 
Skroubis et al. Aug 2002
PubMed Abstract 

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing either Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) or biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) with RYGBP are at risk of developing metabolic sequelae secondary to malabsorption. We compared the differences in nutritional complications between these two bariatric operations.

METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a prospective database was done. From June 1994 to December 2001, 243 morbidly obese patients underwent various bariatric procedures at our institution. Of these patients, 79 (BMI 45.6 +/- SD = 4.9) who underwent RYGBP (gastric pouch 15 +/- 5 ml, biliopancreatic limb 60-80 cm, alimentary limb 80-100 cm and common limb the remainder of the small intestine), and 95 super obese (BMI 57.2 +/- 6.1) who underwent a BPD (gastric pouch 15 +/- 5 ml, biliopancreatic limb 150-200 cm, common limb 100 cm and alimentary limb the remainder of the small intestine), were selected and studied for the incidence of micronutrient deficiencies and level of serum albumin at yearly intervals postoperatively. A variety of nutritional parameters including Hb, Fe, ferritin, folic acid, vitamin B12 and serum albumin were measured preoperatively and compared postoperatively at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months, and yearly thereafter.

RESULTS: Nutritional parameters were compared preoperatively and at similar periods postoperatively. No statistically significant (P < 0.05) difference in the occurrence of deficiency was observed between the groups for any of the nutritional parameters studied, except for ferritin, which showed a significant difference at the 2-year follow-up (37.7% low ferritin levels after RYGBP vs. 15.2% after BPD, P = 0.0294). All of these deficiencies were mild, without clinical symptomatology and were easily corrected with additional supplementation of the deficient micronutrient, with no need for hospitalization. Regarding serum albumin, there was only one patient with a level below 3 g/dl in the RYGBP group and two in the BPD group. These three patients were hospitalized and received total parenteral nutrition for 3 weeks, without further complications.

CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference in the incidence of deficiency of the nutritional parameters studied, except for ferritin, following RYGBP vs. BPD with RYGBP. The most common deficiencies encountered were of iron and vitamin B12. The incidence of hypoalbuminemia was negligible in both groups, with mean values above 4 g/dl.