Studies Comparing BPD and BPD-DS

Studies comparing BPD and BPD-DS that show how the BPD-DS procedure performed today has better results with fewer complications.

Obesity surgery results depending on technique performed: long-term outcome. 
Gracia et al. April 2009
PubMed Abstract 

BACKGROUND: Many techniques have excellent results at 2 years of follow-up but some matters regarding their long-term efficacy have arisen. This is why bariatric surgery results must be analyzed in long-term follow-up. The aim of this study was to extend the analysis over 5 years, evaluating weight loss, morbidity, and mortality of the surgical procedures performed.

METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of the different procedures for morbid obesity practiced in our Department of Surgery for morbid obesity. The results have been analyzed in terms of weight loss, morbidity improvement, and postoperative morbidity (Bariatric Analysis And Reporting Outcome System).

RESULTS: One hundred twenty-five patients were operated on open vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG), 150 patients of open biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) of Scopinaro, 100 patients of open modified BPD (common limb 75 cm; alimentary limb 225 cm), and 115 patients of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP). Mean follow-up was: VBG 12 years, BPD 7 years, and LRYGBP 4 years. An excellent initial weight loss was observed at the end of the second year of follow-up in all techniques, but from this time an important regain of weight was observed in VBG group and a discrete weight regain in LRYGBP group. Only BPD groups kept excellent weight results so far in time. Mortality was: VBG 1.6%, BPD 1.2%, and LRYGBP 0%. Early postoperative complications were: VBG 25%, BPD 20.4%, and LRYGBP 20%. Late postoperative morbidity was: protein malnutrition 11% in Scopinaro BPD, 3% in Modified BPD group, and no cases reported either in VBG group or LRYGBP group; iron deficiency 20% VBG, 62% Scopinaro BPD, 40% modified BPD, and 30.5% LRYGBP. A 14.5% of VBG group required revision surgery to gastric bypass or to BPD due to 100% weight regain or vomiting. A 3.2% of Scopinaro BPD with severe protein malnutrition required revision surgery to lengthen common limb to 100 cm. A 0.8% of LRYGBP required revision surgery to distal LRYGBP (common limb 75 cm) due to 100% weight regain.

CONCLUSIONS: The most complex bariatric procedures increase the effectiveness but unfortunately they also increase morbidity and mortality. LRYGBP is safe and effective for the treatment of morbid obesity. Modified BPD (75-225 cm) can be considered for the treatment of superobesity (body mass index > 50 kg/m(2)), and restrictive procedures such as VBG should only be performed in well-selected patients due to high rates of failure in long-term follow-up.

Duodenal Switch Improved Standard Biliopancreatic Diversion: A Retrospective Study. 
Marceau at al. Jan-Feb 2009
PubMed Abstract 

BACKGROUND: This was a retrospective study, performed 10 years after surgery, to compare the results between biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) with distal gastrectomy (DG) versus BPD with duodenal switch (DS).

METHODS: Complete follow-up data were available for 96% of patients, allowing a comparison of weight loss, revision, side effects, and complications at 10 years.

RESULTS: After BPD-DS, weight loss was 25% greater than after BPD-DG (46.8 +/- 21.7 kg versus 37.5 +/- 22 kg, respectively; P <.0001). The need for revision decreased from 18.5% to 2.7% (P <.0001), and the prevalence of vomiting during the previous month was 50% less (23.7-50.6%, P <.0001) after BPD-DS compared with after BPD-DG. Late complications were the same for both procedures. Blood analysis showed that, after BPD-DS, the levels of calcium, iron, and hemoglobin were significantly greater and the parathyroid hormone level was lower than after BPD-DG (71.3 +/- 44.2 versus 103.0 +/- 64.0 ng/L, respectively; P <.0001).

CONCLUSION: The DS greatly improved the BPD, as it was initially proposed. The use of the DS increased weight loss, decreased the need for revision, resulted in fewer side effects, and improved the absorption of nutrients.

Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch.
Marceau et al. Sept 1998
PubMed Abstract 
Full Article 

In 1990 Scopinaro’s technique of biliopancreatic diversion with distal gastrectomy (DG) and gastroileostomy was modified. A sleeve gastrectomy with duodenal switch (DS) was used instead of the distal gastrectomy; and the length of the common channel was made 100 cm instead of 50 cm. A questionnaire and a prescription for blood work were sent to 252 patients who underwent DG a mean 8.3 years ago (range 6-13 years) and 465 patients who underwent DS 4.1 years ago (range 1.7-6.0 years). The questionnaire response rate was 93%, and laboratory work was completed for 65% of both groups. The mean weight loss after DG was 37 +/- 21 kg and after DS 46 +/- 20 kg. There were fewer side effects after DS: The number of daily stools was lower (p < 0.0002), as was the prevalence of diarrhea (p < 0.01), vomiting (p < 0.001), and bone pain (p < 0.001). Greater benefits related to several aspects of life were reported after DS than DG (p < 0.0001). The mean serum levels of ferritin, calcium, and vitamin A were higher (p < 0.001), and parathyroid hormone was lower. The yearly revision rate for excessive malabsorption was 1.7% per year after DG and 0.1% per year after DS. The two procedures were equally efficient for treating co-morbid conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Biliopancreatic diversion with sleeve gastrectomy/duodenal switch and a 100-cm common limb was shown to produce greater weight loss with fewer side effects.

Biliopancreatic Diversion with a New Type of Gastrectomy. 
Marceau et al. Feb 1993
PubMed Abstract 

In an attempt to improve the results of biliopancreatic diversion in the treatment of morbid obesity, two aspects of the procedure performed at Laval Hospital were modified to reduce adverse physiological consequences. The distal gastrectomy was replaced by a parietal gastrectomy which preserves vagal continuity along with the lesser curvature, and leaves intact the antro-pyloroduodenal pump. The duodenum was stapled shut and nutrients were diverted through a duodeno-ileal anastomosis. The biliopancreatic diverting intestinal limb was anastomosed to the nutrient ileal limb 100 cm proximal to the ileocaecal valve instead of 50 cm proximal to it, thus doubling the length of the common ileal absorptive segment. Weight loss after either operation was greater than 70% of initial excess weight. Following the new operation, there was a lesser prevalence of side-effects, especially loose stools and malodorous gas, a lesser degree of hypocalcemia and no hypoalbuminemia. The duodenum recanalized at the staple line in 20% of the patients who had the new operation. When data from these patients were excluded, weight loss following the new operation was greater than that seen after the old one. The prevalence of side-effects and the degree of calcium and protein malabsorption remained significantly lower. Weight loss remained satisfactory with a common limb measuring 100 cm. The parietal gastrectomy was not restrictive as shown by the failure to lose further weight when the duodenal stapled diversion failed. Weight loss was thus mainly a function of biliopancreatic diversion, but increased weight loss in the new procedure despite a doubling of the common ileal limb suggests that parietal gastrectomy contributed to weight loss. Because duodenal recanalization can be corrected surgically and now prevented, the modified biliopancreatic bypass is preferred.