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Type 2 Diabetes Cure

Studies on Duodenal Switch as a type 2 diabetes cure.

Improvement of type 2 diabetes mellitus in obese and non-obese patients after the duodenal switch operation.
Frenken et al. Mar 2011
PubMed Abstract
Full PMC Article

ABSTRACT: Introduction. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most important obesity-related comorbidities. This study was undertaken to characterise the effect of the biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) in morbidly obese and nonmorbidly obese diabetic patients. Methods. Outcome of 74 obese diabetic patients after BPD-DS and 16 non-obese diabetic patients after BPD or gastric bypass surgery was evaluated. Insulin usage, HbA(1c)-levels, and index of HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistence) were measured. Results. A substantial fraction of patients is free of insulin and shows an improved insulin sensitivity early after the operation, another fraction gets free of insulin in a 12-month period after the operation and a small fraction of long-term insulin users will not get free of insulin but nevertheless shows an improved metabolic status (less insulin needed, normal HbA(1c)-levels). Conclusion. BPD-DS leads to an improvement of T2DM in obese and non-obese patients. Nevertheless, more data is needed to clarify indications and mechanisms of action and to adjust our operation techniques to the needs of non-obese diabetic patients.

Metabolic intestinal bypass surgery for type 2 diabetes in patients with a BMI <35 kg/m2: comparative analysis of 16 patients undergoing either BPD, BPD-DS, or RYGB.
Frenken et al. Mar 2011
PubMed Abstract

BACKGROUND: Metabolic surgery for type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with low body mass index (BMI) is a novel concept. Early studies show the surgery to be safe and effective but are inconclusive regarding the most effective procedure.

METHODS: Metabolic intestinal bypass surgery was performed in n = 16 patients with type 2 diabetes and a BMI < 35 kg/m(2) (mean age 56 years, range 36-68; 8 females; mean BMI 32 kg /m(2), range 26-34.5). Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS), biliopancreatic diversion according to Scopinaro (BPD), and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) were performed in 7, 5, and 4 diabetic patients, respectively. Mean preoperative duration of medical antidiabetic therapy was 16 years (range 4-40). Thirteen patients used insulin on average for 6 years (range 1-12), the mean insulin requirement was 92 IU per day (range 30-140). The analysis was accomplished retrospectively from data prospectively collected in our data base.

RESULTS: At discharge from hospital, only 3 of the 13 patients who used insulin preoperatively required small amounts of insulin (mean 21 IU per day, range 15-30) to keep fasting and postprandial plasma glucose levels below 200 mg/dl. After 1 year, none of the patients used insulin or oral antidiabetic drugs. The HbA1c level decreased for the total patient population from 8.6% (range 5.8-12.1) preoperatively to 6.0% (range 4.3-7.8), 5.7% (range 4.1-7.6), and 5.6% (range 4.1-7.8) after 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. The HbA1c levels at 1 year were significantly lower after BPD-DS and BPD than after RYGB (5.2%, range 4.1-6.4 versus 6.7%, range 5.8-7.8, p < 0.01, DHbA1c 1.4%, 95% confidence interval 0.5-2.4).

CONCLUSION: Metabolic intestinal bypass surgery for type 2 diabetes in low BMI patients is effective, with HbA1c levels at 1 year after the operation being significantly lower after BPD-DS or BPD than after RYGB.

Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: is the chance of complete remission dependent on therapy and duration of insulin treatment?
Cho et al. Mar 2011
PubMed Abstract

BACKGROUND: Rapid resolution of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common feature after intestinal bypass surgery bypassing the duodenum and parts of the jejunum. However, the parameters determining the individual chance of remission are imprecisely defined.

METHODS: Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch and sleeve gastrectomy (BPD-DS) was performed in n = 86 patients with T2DM (mean age 50 years, range 26-68, 51 females; BMI 47 kg/m(2), range 26-71). The patients were retrospectively divided into 4 groups according to the treatment modality and the duration of insulin treatment preoperatively: n = 18 patients were treated with oral antidiabetic drugs only (group 1); n = 32, n = 24, and n = 12 patients were treated with insulin for less than 5 years, for 5-10 years, and for more than 10 years (groups 2, 3, and 4), respectively.

RESULTS: At discharge from hospital, all patients of groups 1 and 2 were free of insulin usage, 30% and 75% of the patients of groups 3 and 4 used up to 48 units of insulin per day (mean 24, n = 16). After 1 year, only 4 patients of group 4 permanently required small amounts of insulin (mean 17 units per day) to keep blood glucose below 200 mg/dl. These 4 patients had been using insulin preoperatively for 13, 15, 22, and 25 years. In 3 of these 4 patients, fasting C-peptide was measured and found to be low (<1.2 ng/ml). The rate of complete remission of diabetes for the whole study population was 91%.

CONCLUSION: BPD-DS reliably causes rapid and complete remission of T2DM in all patients on oral antidiabetic drugs and in patients with insulin treatment for less than 5 years. In patients with insulin treatment longer than 5 or 10 years, complete remission rates decline to 88 and 66%, respectively. A low C-peptide preoperatively might be a specific adverse prognostic parameter for the chance of diabetes remission.

Bileopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch Lowers Both Early and Late Phases of Glucose, Insulin and Proinsulin Responses After Meal.
Johansson et al. Mar 2010
PubMed Abstract

BACKGROUND: Hyperproinsulinemia is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. We explored the after-meal dynamics of proinsulin and insulin and postprandial effects on glucose and lipids in patients treated with bileopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) surgery compared with normal-weight controls [body mass index (BMI)+/-SD, 23.2 +/- 2.4 kg/m(2)].

METHODS: Ten previously morbidly obese (BMI+/-SD, 53.5 +/- 3.8 kg/m(2)) patients free from diabetes who had undergone BPD-DS (BMI+/-SD, 29.0 +/- 5.2 kg/m(2)) 2 years earlier were recruited. A standardised meal (2400 kJ) was ingested, and glucose, proinsulin, insulin, free fatty acids and triglycerides (TGs) were determined during 180 min. Follow-up characteristics yearly on glucose, lipids, creatinine and uric acid over 3 years after BPD-DS are presented.

RESULTS: Fasting glucose and insulin were lower, 0.4 mmol/L and 4.6 pmol/L, respectively, in the BPD-DS group despite higher BMI. Fasting proinsulin was similar in both groups. Postprandial area under the curve (AUC) for glucose, proinsulin and insulin did not differ between the two groups (p = 0.106-734). Postprandial changes in glucose, proinsulin and insulin were essentially similar but absolute concentrations of proinsulin and insulin were lower in the later phases in the BPD-DS group (p = 0.052-0.001). Postprandial AUC for TGs was lower in the BPD-DS group (p = 0.005). Postprandial changes in TGs were lowered in the intermediate phase (p = 0.07-0.08) and in the late phase (0.002). Follow-up data showed markedly lowered creatinine and uric acid after BPD-DS.

CONCLUSIONS: BPD-DS surgery induces a large weight loss and lowers, close to normal, postprandial responses of glucose, proinsulin and insulin but with marked lowering of TGs.

Weight and type 2 diabetes after bariatric surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis.
Buchwald et al. Mar 2009
PubMed Abstract
Register to access the full article from The American Journal of Medicine

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide. The objective of this review and meta-analysis is to determine the impact of bariatric surgery on type 2 diabetes in association with the procedure performed and the weight reduction achieved.

METHODS: The review includes all articles published in English from January 1, 1990, to April 30, 2006.

RESULTS: The dataset includes 621 studies with 888 treatment arms and 135,246 patients; 103 treatment arms with 3188 patients reported on resolution of diabetes, that is, the resolution of the clinical and laboratory manifestations of type 2 diabetes. Nineteen studies with 43 treatment arms and 11,175 patients reported both weight loss and diabetes resolution separately for the 4070 diabetic patients in these studies. At baseline, the mean age was 40.2 years, body mass index was 47.9 kg/m2, 80% were female, and 10.5% had previous bariatric procedures. Meta-analysis of weight loss overall was 38.5 kg or 55.9% excess body weight loss. Overall, 78.1% of diabetic patients had complete resolution, and diabetes was improved or resolved in 86.6% of patients. Weight loss and diabetes resolution were greatest for patients undergoing biliopancreatic diversion/duodenal switch, followed by gastric bypass, and least for banding procedures. Insulin levels declined significantly postoperatively, as did hemoglobin A1c and fasting glucose values. Weight and diabetes parameters showed little difference at less than 2 years and at 2 years or more.

CONCLUSION: The clinical and laboratory manifestations of type 2 diabetes are resolved or improved in the greater majority of patients after bariatric surgery; these responses are more pronounced in procedures associated with a greater percentage of excess body weight loss and is maintained for 2 years or more.

Is Type 2 Diabetes an Operable Intestinal Disease? A Provocative Yet Reasonable Hypothesis
Rubino Feb 2008
PubMed Abstract
Full article can be found at Diabetes Care

Type 2 diabetes, which accounts for 90-95% of all cases of diabetes, is a growing epidemic that places a severe burden on health care systems, especially in developing countries. Because of both the scale of the problem and the current epidemic growth of diabetes, it is a priority to find new approaches to better understand and treat this disease. Gastrointestinal surgery may provide new opportunities in the fight against diabetes. Conventional gastrointestinal operations for morbid obesity have been shown to dramatically improve type 2 diabetes, resulting in normal blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels, with discontinuation of all diabetes-related medications. Return to euglycemia and normal insulin levels are observed within days after surgery, suggesting that weight loss alone cannot entirely explain why surgery improves diabetes. Recent experimental studies point toward the rearrangement of gastrointestinal anatomy as a primary mediator of the surgical control of diabetes, suggesting a role of the small bowel in the pathophysiology of the disease. This article presents available evidence in support of the hypothesis that type 2 diabetes may be an operable disease characterized by a component of intestinal dysfunction.

Duodenal switch without gastric resection: results and observations after 6 years.
Cossu et al. Nov-Dec 2004
PubMed Abstract

BACKGROUND: The results on metabolic effects of the classical biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) have led us to investigate the operation without gastric resection, thus preserving stomach and pylorus, in patients who are not seriously obese but suffer from hypercholesterolemia, often associated with type 2 diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia.

METHODS: Between 1996 and 1999, we performed the duodenal switch (DS) without gastric resection on 24 mildly obese patients. Mean preoperative BMI was 36.2 kg/m(2). 17 patients (70.8%) suffered from type 1 diabetes, 4 (16.6%) had impaired glucose tolerance, while the remainder had fasting hyperglycemia. In 20 patients (83.3%), hypercholesterolemia and alterations in lipid profile were present. Another 20 patients were taking drugs for arterial hypertension. The pluri-metabolic syndrome was present in 41.6% of patients.

RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 4 years. BMI reduction and weight loss were not large. 2 patients who had severe longstanding diabetes type 2 needed a second operation of the classical BPD because of failure in improving diabetes. Another 2 patients were changed to classical BPD because of a relapsing chronic duodeno-ileal ulcer. The incidence of ileal ulcer was 29.1%. Regarding hypercholesterolemia, hypertrigliceridemia, and type 2 diabetes when there is a good pancreatic "reservoir", the operation seems effective in the long-term. Protein absorption is better than that obtained with the classical BPD.

CONCLUSIONS: Our long-term results suggest that in carefully selected patients suffering from serious hypercholesterolemia or type 2 diabetes with insulin reserves still at an acceptable level, and with BMI 30-40, DS without gastric resection can be proposed as a surgical treatment for metabolic diseases but not for obesity.

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