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Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies

Articles highlighting vitamin and mineral deficiencies after Duodenal Switch surgery.

Neurologic dysfunction and pancytopenia secondary to acquired copper deficiency following duodenal switch: case report and review of the literature.
Btaiche et al. Oct 2011
PubMed Abstract

ABSTRACT: The duodenal switch (DS) procedure is a type of restrictive-malabsorptive bariatric surgery that is typically reserved for severe morbidly obese people (body mass index >50 kg/m(2)) with obesity-related comorbidities, when diet, lifestyle changes, and pharmacologic therapy fail to achieve adequate weight loss. Patients who undergo the DS procedure are at risk for malabsorption, malnutrition, and nutrient deficiencies. Copper deficiency is a commonly reported long-term complication of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. However, data are limited on copper deficiency-associated complications and their treatment in DS patients. This article presents a case of a patient who developed hypocupremia with associated pancytopenia, myeloneuropathy, and leukoencephalopathy following DS and reviews the literature related to the pathophysiology of copper deficiency and copper replacement in bariatric surgery patients. When severe diarrhea was present, intravenous elemental copper 4 mg (as cupric chloride)/d in addition to daily oral copper gluconate was necessary to correct the hypocupremia and improve the hematologic indices and neurologic symptoms of copper deficiency. When diarrhea subsided, oral elemental copper 4 mg (as copper gluconate) 3 times daily maintained normal serum copper concentrations and avoided the relapse of severe neurologic dysfunction. Regular monitoring of serum copper and ceruloplasmin concentrations is recommended following DS surgery to detect any copper deficiency before irreversible neurologic damage occurs. Long-term copper supplementation is likely necessary to maintain normal copper status in DS patients.

Nutritional deficiencies in bariatric surgery patients: prevention, diagnosis and treatment.
Schweiger et al. Nov 2010
PubMed Abstract

ABSTRACT: The number of people suffering from surgery and obesity in the western world is constantly growing. In 1997 the World Health Organization (WHO) defined obesity as a plague and one of greatest public health hazards of our time. The National Institution of Health (NIH) declared that surgery is the only long-term solution for obesity. Today there are four different types of bariatric surgery. Each variation has different implications on the nutritional status of bariatric surgery patients. Bariatric surgery candidates are at risk of developing vitamin and mineral nutritional deficiencies in the post-operative stage, due to vomiting, decrease in food intake, food intolerance, diminution of gastric secretions and bypass of absorption area. It is easier and more efficient to treat nutritional deficiencies in the preoperative stage. Therefore, preoperative detection and correction are crucial. Blood tests before surgery to detect and treat nutritional deficiencies are crucial. In the postoperative period, blood tests should be conducted every 3 months in the first year after operation, every six months in the second year and annually thereafter. Multivitamin is recommended to prevent nutritional deficiencies in all bariatric surgery patients. Furthermore, iron, calcium, Vitamin D and B12 are additionally recommended for Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass patients. Patients with Biliopancreatic diversion and Duodenal Switch should also take fat soluble vitamins.

Zinc Deficiency: A Frequent and Underestimated Complication After Bariatric Surgery.
Sallé et al. Aug 2010
PubMed Abstract

BACKGROUND: Although zinc deficiency is common after bariatric surgery, its incidence is underestimated. The objective was to monitor zinc and nutritional status before and 6, 12 and 24 months (M6, M12 and M24) after gastric bypass (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass), sleeve gastrectomy and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (DS) in patients receiving systematised nutritional care.

METHODS: Data for 324 morbidly obese patients (mean body mass index 46.2 +/- 7.3 kg/m(2)) were reviewed retrospectively. The follow-up period was 6 months for 272 patients, 12 months for 175, and 24 months for 70. Anthropometric, dietary and serum albumin, prealbumin, zinc, iron and transferrin saturation measures were determined at each timepoint.

RESULTS: Nine percent of patients had zinc deficiency pre-operatively. Zinc deficiency was present in 42.5% of the population at M12 and then remained stable. Zinc deficiency was significantly more frequent after DS, with a prevalence of 91.7% at M12. Between M0 and M6, variation in plasma prealbumin, surgery type and zinc supplementation explained 27.2% of the variance in plasma zinc concentration. Surgery type explained 22.1% of this variance between M0 and M24. Mean supplemental zinc intake was low (22 mg/day). The percentage of patients taking zinc supplementation at M6, M12 and M24 was 8.9%, 20.6% and 29%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Reduced protein intake, impaired zinc absorption and worsening compensatory mechanisms contribute to zinc deficiency. The mechanisms involved differ according to the type of surgery and time since surgery. Zinc supplementation is necessary early after bariatric surgery, but this requirement is often underestimated or is inadequate.

Vitamin status after bariatric surgery: a randomized study of gastric bypass and duodenal switch.
Aasheim et al. Jul 2009
PubMed Abstract

BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is widely performed to induce weight loss.

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine changes in vitamin status after 2 bariatric surgical techniques.

DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 Scandinavian hospitals. The subjects were 60 superobese patients [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 50-60]. The surgical interventions were either laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or laparoscopic biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. All patients received multivitamins, iron, calcium, and vitamin D supplements. Gastric bypass patients also received a vitamin B-12 substitute. The patients were examined before surgery and 6 wk, 6 mo, and 1 y after surgery.

RESULTS: Of 60 surgically treated patients, 59 completed the follow-up. After surgery, duodenal switch patients had lower mean vitamin A and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and a steeper decline in thiamine concentrations than did the gastric bypass patients. Other vitamins (riboflavin, vitamin B-6, vitamin C, and vitamin E adjusted for serum lipids) did not change differently in the surgical groups, and concentrations were either stable or increased. Furthermore, duodenal switch patients had lower hemoglobin and total cholesterol concentrations and a lower BMI (mean reduction: 41% compared with 30%) than did gastric bypass patients 1 y after surgery. Additional dietary supplement use was more frequent among duodenal switch patients (55%) than among gastric bypass patients (26%).

CONCLUSIONS: Compared with gastric bypass, duodenal switch may be associated with a greater risk of vitamin A and D deficiencies in the first year after surgery and of thiamine deficiency in the initial months after surgery. Patients who undergo these 2 surgical interventions may require different monitoring and supplementation regimens in the first year after surgery. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00327912.

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